The Baltic is a sinister sea

15 Nov

Despite being a nearly closed sea and not much indepththe Baltic Sea is rich in 

maritime disasters.


Especially during WWII there were many sinking boats, many of them full of civilians. The last one 7 September 1994 (Finland). 852 dead and 137 survivors in the sinking of the Estonian ferry linking Tallinn with Stockholm.

One of the worst desasters was the Soviet evacuation of Tallinn, also called Tallinn disaster or Russian Dunkirk, was a Soviet operation to evacuate the 190 ships of the Baltic Fleet, units of the Red Army, and pro-Soviet civilians from the fleet’s encircled main base of Tallinn in the Soviet Republic of Estonia ( That belonged to Russia from XVIII century ) during August 1941.

 As is often the case when the victims are Russianthe facts are minorised or blamingly concealed. No doubt because humanizing the enemy is against the rules.

Tallin 1
Planned route

Given the German advance and the atrocities they were committing against civilians in their way, the Soviet command considered it convenient to evacuate the Russian fleet so that it would not fall to the invaders together with the maximum number of civilians possible.

In expectation of a Soviet breakout, the Kriegsmarine and the Finnish Navy had started on 8 August 1941 to lay minefields off Cape Juminda on the Lahemaa coast. While Soviet minesweepers tried to clear a path for convoys through the minefields, German coastal artillery installed a battery of 150 mm (5.9 in) guns near Cape Juminda and the Finnish navy gathered their Flotilla with patrol boats VMV9, VMV10, VMV11 and VMV17. At the same time the German 3. Schnellbootflottille with E-boats S-26, S-27, S-39, S-40 and S-101 was concentrated at Suomenlinna outside Helsinki. German bombers based on airfields in Estonia were put on alert. 

The Germans started their  attack on Tallirm on August ]9, but the Russians, supported by the guns of the coastal defences and warships were able to hold their ground for nearly a week, 011 August 26:r however,the Cermans broke ínto the city, and the Russian Suprerne Comrnand ordered the evacuation of Tallin, , Afrer two more days of intenslve streer Ilghtlng, the convoy of troop transports and warships sailed frorn Tallinn harbour. The Germans claimed that “not a single ship” would be able to leave Tallirm; but, according tq, the Russians, “most” of the ships, including the flag-ship Fivfinskr got through, despíte constant attacks frorn German aircraft and torpedo boats, and floatingmines whích the Gerrnans had scattered throughout the Gulf of Finland.

   During the night of 27/28 August 1941 the Soviet 10th Rifle Corps disengaged from the enemy and boarded transports in Tallinn.

Ruta 1

   The embarkation was protected by smoke screens, however, the mine-sweeping in the days before the evacuation began was ineffective due to bad weather, and there were no Soviet aircraft available for protecting the embarkation. This, together with heavy German shelling and aerial bombardment killed at least 1,000 of the evacuees in the harbour.

Kirov Cruiser
Kirov cruiser with smoke screen.

   Twenty large transports, eight auxiliary ships, nine small transports, a tanker, a tug, and a tender were organized into four convoys, protected by the Soviet cruiser Kirov, with Admiral Vladimir Tributs on board, two flotilla leaders, nine destroyers, three torpedo boats, twelve submarines, ten modern and fifteen obsolete minehunters, 22 minesweepers, 21 submarine chasers, three gun boats, a minelayer, thirteen patrol vessels and eleven torpedo boats. When these ships had departed, forming into a column some 15.5 miles (25 km) long as they moved out into open water.


   On 28 August Luftwaffe bomber sank the steamer Vironia, the  Lucerne, the Atis Kronvalds and the  ice breaker Krisjanis Valdemars. The rest of the Soviet fleet were forced to change course. This took them through a heavily mined area. As a result, 21 Soviet warships, including five destroyers, struck mines and sank. On 29 August, the Luftwaffe,  accounted for the transport ships Vtoraya Pyatiletka , Kalpaks and Leningradsovet  sunk. In addition, the ships Ivan PapaninSauleKazakhstan and the Serp i Molot were damaged by I./KG 4, which also sank three more. Some 5,000 Soviet soldiers died.

Kirov cruiser

  Later that evening the armada was attacked by Finnish and German torpedo boats, and the chaotic situation made organized mine sweeping impossible. Darkness fell at 22:00 and the Soviet armada stopped and anchored at midnight in the heavily mined water.

  Early on 29 August Ju 88 bombers attacked the remains of the convoys off Suursaari, sinking two transports. Meanwhile, the undamaged ships made best speed to reach the safety of the Kronstadt batteries. The heavily damaged merchant ship Kazakhstan disembarked 2300 men of the 5000 on board before steaming on to Kronstadt. In the following days ships operating from Suursaari rescued 12,160 survivors.

  The biggest losses were suffered by the trawlers and destroyers trying  to take the Convoy through the Gerrnan rníneflelds. In the end, the “greater part” of the ships, carrying several thousands soldioers, landed ein Kronstaadt or Leningrad.

The Russian naval garrisons of Dagö, and other íslands off the Estonian coast, held out till the middle of October, when the 500 survívors of the defence of Dagö succeeded in sailing under cover of night to Hangö, the Russian naval base in Finland, which was then stíll in Russian hands,  

The Soviet evacuation of Tallinn succeeded in evacuating 165 ships, 28,000 passengers and 66,000 tons of equipment.The evacuation of Tallinn succeeded in recovering 165 ships, 28,000 persons and 66,000 tons of equipment, but the losses were more than 12,000 military and civilian dead as well as 13 warships and 34 merchant vessels.
At least 12,400 are thought to have drowned .
The evacuation may have been the bloodiest naval disaster since the battle of Lepanto

But unknown for the Westerners.

The human tragedy 

The numbers are cold, 12,000 dead dozens and sinking ships do not impress us much, but when we put the magnifying glass on the disaster and see the people and their dramas, everything is very different.

Harrison.E. Salisbury in his book “The 900 days” give us more human details.

“Aboard the Virona it was also the mess hour. Mikhailovsky, his notebook in hand, sat down at the long table. Among those waiting on table was a young girl with black braids, sensitive face, blue eyes. She looked to Mikhailovsky like a girl graduate. After dinner everyone went on deck to atch the German planes. The girl, her hair neatly braided, stood next to Mikhailovsky.

“How strange war begins”, she said.”So unexpected. I just don´t understand anything”.

“Are you from Leningrad?” he asked.

“Yes”, she said, ” and I Happened to be in Tallin quite by accident”.

The talked for a while, then the ship moved on to the east…..


The whistle of falling bombs filled the air.Suddenly Mikhailovsky felt the ship shudder. The deck under his feet seemed to rise up. The next moment he was under water, sinking to the bottom. To the end. So it seemed. Then he rose…….


He felt something in the water-something firm and cold.He turned about and saw a body floating, the skull crushed an the face a mass of pulp. Only by the black braids did he recognice the schoolgril from Leningrad who had found hersef in Tallin by sheer chace.”

” A sailor on the gunboat Sneg saw the Virona sink. The passengers were mostly staff of the Baltic Fleet, officer´s wives, propaganda workers, newspapermen, Party officials,The quarterdeck was crowded, but in the sea the sailor colud perceive the dark figures of people swimming. Across the watery expanse heheard the faint sound of the Internationale. The crowd on the deck was singing, ant the stirring strains rolled over the waves. Then the sailor heard the thin crack de shots and the yellow flash of flame as officers took their own lives in the last moment befor the shipp disappeared below the waves.

The Sneg picked up dozens of survivors. Some of the womwn has lost all their clothes.Some of the men were histerucal. Later another gunboat picked up a woman who had clung to a German mine for hours before she was taken off. She was a commander´s wife. She had sung the Internationale with the others . But she put no bullet in her head. She simply leaped into the water and eigteen hours later was rescued.

Anataly Tarankesov jumped from the ship in full uniform, wearing his greaycoat, hispocket filled with manuscripts and notes, his pistol in his belt. He joined a circle of passengers who were holding hand and attempting to support each other with the help of life belts. Soon his limbs grew stiff, and he slowly swamoff. How long he had been swimming he don´t know when a tug appeared and he was hauled aboard.”.

Casa en ruinas en Leningrado
Leningrad´s ruins

Fair punishment

At the end of World War II the Germans tried their own medicine. Before the advance of the Russian army, attempts were made to evacuate civilians from East Prussia to the west by ship, and several ships were sunk, including the Wilhem Gustoff on January 30, 1945 with a total of 10,582 passengers and crew. From them 9600 were dead.

All four captains on the Gustloff survived and that its sinking, but an official naval inquiry was started only against Wilhelm Zahn. His degree of responsibility was never resolved. There does not seem to be much value on their part as the Costa Concordia captain recently also demonstrated.

The Polish liked to denounce Jews.

26 Oct

There are countries that refuse to confront their past and many with their present.


The Turks continue to deny the Armenian genocide more than a century later, the Germans continue with much amnesia about what they knew or not in Hitler’s time and the Poles present themselves as if the only ones who murdered Jews were the Germans.

Today, in the times of the Internet and instant news, the extermination of Christians in the Middle East and throughout the Muslim world goes unnoticed, in a Western world more concerned with veganism than with murdered Christian children.


Both Turkey and Poland have enacted laws trying to create a single truth, in which of course their crimes do not appear. We are going to challenge them.

A Spanish proverb says that “one button is enough to show the totality”.

In his book Jan Grabowski  “Hunt for the Jews” Betrayal and Murder in German-Occupied Poland”. Indiana University Press. 2013.  It deals with the hunting of Jews in an area of Poland during the German occupation. We will see if it is true, as the Poles say, that only the Germans killed Jews.

First it is necessary to know that in the occupied zones, in addition to the German gendarmes there was a Polish police, called “blue”, because of the color of their uniform.

After the liquidatiion of guettos in 1942, some Jews went into hiding in Dabrowa Tarnowska county, and many others. But the book study only this county that was controled by Germans till January 1945.

Dabrowa Tarnowska

The author said that the death can come to the Jews by a German gendarm, a Blue Polish policeman or from a neighbour.

Polish “blue” policeman fines a Jew for jaywalking, .

  We know that most humans are not heroes, so the risk of continued help to the Jews cannot be expected from the majority of the population, however there were heroes who paid with their lives, and that of their families, that help. But at least one indifference or neutrality could be expected, but on the contrary this book shows that the majority willingly collaborates in the hunt and death of the hidden Jews.

  Poles did not begin to persecute and denounce Jews suddenly when the Germans arrived, Polish anti-Semitism is very old and as strong or more than German. Already in the 1930s there were anti-Jewish pamphlets such as “Don’t buy anything from a Jew,” much like those of the German Nazis at the time, and riots against Jewish businesses, breaking windows, beating them, and so on. 

  Even Prime Minister Felicjan Sławoj-Składkowski, seen by many as sympathetic to the plight of minorities, declared himself in favor of an economic boycott of Jewish commerce. In his speech delivered in the Polish parliament (Sejm) on June 4, 1936, the prime minister said “yes, to economic struggle, but no to physical violence.” 

According to Grabowski, Poles were responsible, directly or indirectly, for the deaths of more than 200,000 Jews during the Holocaust. He held this estimate to be very conservative, as he did not include victims of the Polish Blue Police.”The great majority of Jews in hiding perished as a consequence of betrayal. They were denounced or simply seized, tied up and delivered by locals to the nearest station of the Polish police, or to the German gendarmerie.” 

 Symcha Hampel, who went into hiding in a village close to Radomsko, noted in his wartime diary: 

 “Poland is probably the only country in the world where practically the whole society betrayed and handed over to the Germans each hidden Jew, their fellow citizen. I want to stress that thousands of Jewish children have been caught this way, handed over to the German murderers. The Poles worked hard and well [to make it possible]. . . . The entire Polish society is to be blamed, and the Polish clergy most of all. Only now, living among the Poles, can I see how deeply entrenched is antisemitism in Polish society . . . the priests often discussed the Jews in church and thanked God that these parasites were gone once and for all. They were grateful to Hitler for having done the dirty work [for them].  

I´m not sure that Poland was the only country in the world that did it, the Baltic countries and others had similar behavior.

   Grawoski ontinues : The alleged closeness between Jews and gentiles living in the rural areas did not translate, according to contemporary witnesses, into stronger empathy, better treatment, or more energetic attempts at rescue. On the contrary, many peasants, seduced by modest prizes and inducements offered by the Germans, became actively involved in hunting down the Jews. Others joined the search out of fear. In many cases, the fleeing Jews had left their belongings with trusted peasants for safekeeping. For some farmers, this was too much of a temptation, and Jewish merchandise, money, or livestock became a reason for betrayal or even murder. 

Some Jewish hunt sites

in Borek Fałęcki, Wieliczka, Bochnia, and Swoszowice, for instance, 500 złoty and a kilogram of sugar were being offered for every captured Jew. These tactics resulted in success for the Germans. The local population in great numbers turned Jews over to the Germans, who shot these “criminals.” . . . Besides rewards, the Germans also utilized a system of punishments for hiding the Jews. Posters threatening capital punishment for this “crime” appeared before every “liquidation action” against the Jews in any given locality. 


Circumstances of Death of Jews in Hiding, Dąbrowa Tarnowska County 

Killed by the German police (gendarmerie)—own action……………………… 7 

Killed by the German police (gendarmerie)—denounced by the locals,,,, 98 

Killed by the locals ……………………………………………………………………….    7 

Killed by the “blue” Polish police—own action ……………………………………13 

Killed by the “blue” Polish police……………………………………………………..102

Denounced by the locals 102 Unknown circumstances………………………. 59 

Victims (total)……………………………………………………………………………. 286 

As we can see, most of the murders are committed by the Polish blue police or by denunciations from Poles to Germans.

 One testimony :

In one of the Jewish testimonies we read that “in 1942, Rywka Glückmann and her two sons found shelter in the house of one Michał Kozik from Dąbrowa Tarnowska (Ruda Zazamcze). He kept them from 1942 until 1944 (three months before the Russians arrived), as long as they paid him. Once the money was gone, Kozik murdered all three of them with an axe. Jews hiding across the street (Chaskiel Gruszow with his mother, Berker’s sister and Aron Berker) heard the howls of the murdered, and the next day learned that the Glückmanns were dead.”

Another one:

Sometime in 1942 or 1943 “unknown Jewboys came during the night to the farm of Andrzej Łach, trying to steal some apples from the trees.” 23 The “unknown Jew-boys” actually proved to be two young Jewish girls, who were soon caught by the peasants. “Later the persons who were caught,” testified one of the witnesses, “asked to be let go,” but they asked in vain, and both were brought to the village elder. He, in turn, asked the village “section leader” and two other peasants to deliver the girls to the police detachment in Bolesław. Once in Bolesław, the peasants surrendered the Jewish girls into the custody of German gendarme Richard Keter, who—later that day—shot them in a nearby field.

German police officer searches a peasant’s hut. 1942.

Number of people in hiding (countywide) *

% of the known cases of help       % [number] of people who survived the war. 

Paid help                112 [70%]                   9% [10] 

Altruistic help**         48 [30%]                 56% [27] 

No precise data      177                             8% [14] 

Total                       337                           15% [51] 

*Grabowski, Jan. Hunt for the Jews (p. 137). Indiana University Press.

**The category “altruistic help” also includes those helpers who initially offered shelter for money but once their”guests” ran out of financial resources, decided to keep the Jews for free

Grabowski continues :

In the summer of 2009 the influential German weekly Der Spiegel published a front-page article entitled “Dark Continent: Hitler’s European Helpers.” According to its authors, the extermination of European Jews was not only a German deed, but also a result of the involvement of many other nationalities, allies, sympathizers and fellow travelers. The extermination of the Jews was possible with the participation of Latvian policemen, Lithuanian “shooters” ( shaulai), Ukrainian militias and guardsmen, Polish mobs from Jedwabne or Radziłów, French or Belgian volunteers for the SS, but also their civilian and uniformed fellow citizens, who robbed Jews and locked them in prisons. One could carry this list on and on. In Poland, Der Spiegel ’s article raised some ire, mostly among politicians and journalists, who accused the German authors (not without some justification) of trying to share the blame for the Shoah with the rest of Europe. Maybe so, but the question raised by Der Spiegel still requires an answer: would the Germans have succeeded as completely as they did in exterminating the European Jews without the often unforced, and sometimes enthusiastic, support of non-German volunteers and helpers? In light of the evidence presented in this book, it can be argued that the attitudes of the local population had, at least for some Jews, fundamental and existential importance. 

Nothing more to add.

What happened to the Nazi judges?

18 Oct

The more you know in detail what was done with the Nazi assassins after the war, the more surprised one stays.

In the collective memory the Nuremberg trials are identified with the trials of the highest commanders of the Nazi régime, Goering, Hess, etc., but there were other judgments that the public totally ignores.

One of them was the trial of the judges. The German judges who wrote and executed the murdoreus German laws in Hitler’s time. On whose consciences weighed thousands of innocent deaths.

The trial of the judges (officially, The United States of America vs. Josef Altstötter, et al.) Was the third of the twelve war crimes trials that the US authorities conducted in Nuremberg, in the US occupation zone in Germany, after the end of World War II. These twelve trials were executed before US military courts and not before the International Military Court, although they took place in the same rooms at the Nuremberg Palace of Justice

Logically, a common citizen would expect them to be sentenced to harsh punishment or death. It was quite the opposite.

Nine of them had been officers of the Reich Ministry of Justice, the others were prosecutors and judges of the special courts or the Volksgerichtshöfe of Nazi Germany. The trial lasted from March 5 to December 4, 1947.

Criminal war judges tried


Josef Altstötter

 Paul Barnickel

 Hermann CuhorstKarl Engert






The CIA contrated genocides ?… Yes and a lot.

3 Oct

Among the many surprises that the true history of WWII holds for us, the hiring by the CIA of genocides of the worst kind is one of the biggest. No wonder this story has been hidden for decades till recently.

   Some of us knew that USA recruited killer scientists like Von Braun for its space flights and atomic studies, by the way the Russians also “recruited” German scientists, but what the CIA did overcomes this horror and lack of scruples if that were possible.

  Damien Lewis en his book “SAS nazi hunters” Quercus. London. 2019. Pages 307-399.Said :


 Under the US War Crimes Disclosure Act, the CIA was forced to release an assesment of its links to former  Nazis, marked “secret” and entitled “”America” Seeing-Eye Dog on a Long Leash”……

  In 2006, a limited number of Gehlen Organization files were released under the US War Crimes Disclosure Act. From the study of those, the highly respected federation of American Scientist (FAS) Proyect on Government Secrecy listed the names of the top Nazi war criminla employed by the Gehlen Organization and thus also by the CIA

   These included: former SS Oberführer Willi Krichbaum. responsible for the deportation of Hungarian Jews, of ,whom some 300.000 lost their lives. SS Standartenfürer Walter Rauff. who personally designed and supervised the mobile extermination vans used to gas Jews; SS Oberführer Dr. Franz Six. who in 1941 commanded an Einmt:gruppe that exterminated the Jews of the Russian city ol Smolensk; SS .Sturmbannführer Alois Brunner. a Gestapo official who  worked directly under Adolf Eichmann, and who ‘purged’  Paris of its Jews. 

    And lest one concludes that this was purely an Americm  phenomenon, the British proved equally adept at recruiting  suspected Nazy war criminals eilher to spy on the Russians, or   because they were privy to Nazi Germanys much-sought-afler   technological and military secrets. If there were an equivalent   British act to the US Nan War Crimes Act – which sadly there   isn’t currently – files would doubtless emerge that would prove   equally disconcerting.

  In this web you find more names :

Waler Rauff young
Walter Rauff old

The designer of exterminattion vans

  Died in 1984 in Santiago de Chile ( Chile)

  Rauff is thought to have been responsible for nearly 100,000 deaths during World War II. He was instrumental in the implementation of the Nazis’ genocide by mobile gas chamber. His victims included CommunistsJewsRoma and people with disabilities. He was arrested in 1945, but subsequently escaped and was never brought to trial. 

 Now we know why he “escaped”.

The Gehlen Organization or Gehlen Org was an intelligence agency established in June 1946 by U.S. occupation authorities in the United States zone of Germany, and consisted of former members of the 12th Department of the German Army General Staff (Foreign Armies East, or FHO). It was headed by Reinhard Gehlen who had previously been a Wehrmacht Major General and head of the Nazi German military intelligence in the Eastern Front during World War II.
The agency was a precursor to the Bundesnachrichtendienst (or Federal Intelligence Agency) which was formed in 1956 with majority of nazis in the staff.


Reinhard Gelen , the “Boss”

Franz Six


Franz Six was assigned as chief of Vorkommando Moscow, a unit of Einsatzgruppe B in the Soviet Union. During this command, Six’s Kommando reported “liquidating” 144 persons. The report claimed “The Vorkommando Moscow was forced to execute another 46 persons, amongst them 38 intellectual Jews who had tried to create unrest and discontent in the newly established Ghetto of Smolensk.

Franz the Einsatzgruppen Trial of 1948

 the Nuremberg tribunal sentenced him to 20 years’ imprisonment. A clemency court commuted this sentence to 10 years, and he was released on 30 September 1952. He served about 7.5 years from his arrest to his release- about 13.5 days for each of his 200 victims. CIA files suggest Six joined the Gehlen Organization, the forerunner to the Bundesnachrichtendienst, in the 1950s.[

  Franz Six retired to Friedrichshafen in southern Germany. He worked as a publicity/advertising executive for Porsche

Klaus Barbie
Was in France where Klaus Barbie won the nickname “Butcher of Lyon.” He did so after stopping 44 Jewish children from an Izieu orphanage; assassinate resistance leader Jean Moulin; end the life of more than 4,400 prisoners; Torture 14,000 French and deport more than 7,000 people to the dreaded German concentration camps.

In 1947, the United States produced a report on this character and the possibility that his police work against the Jews was useful in the Cold War to persecute the hidden communists in Germany.

 Thus, Robert S. Taylor (one of the first swords of the secret counterintelligence services of the US -CIC-) described the bestial “Butcher of Lyon”: “He is an honest man, both intellectually and personally, without nerves or fears, a declared and idealistic anti-communist of Nazism who believes that his ideas were betrayed by the Nazis in power, and the same happened with Allan A. Ryan Jr, assistant to the Attorney General of North America, who else later he emphasized the following: “If Klaus Barbie was at your disposal, it was effective, loyal and reliable […] to use it, it corresponded to the best American interests of the moment”.

    Later, in October, USA. UU. He established that Barbie became part of the US secret services to fight communism. Thereafter, the “Butcher of Lyon” served as a spy under the American umbrella to fight the USSR.

  All this, although it was closely followed by the justice of the allies. «The French government tried to locate Barbie. His ambassador to Washington and other important leaders put pressure on the State Department and the United States High Commission for Germany, asking them for help in their work. But the CIC continued to give him work, ”adds the expert in his work.

   So it was until a few years later. Luck wanted that, in 1951, the sources of information of this former Nazi officer put him aside. This fact, together with international pressure, caused the White House to obtain this cruel false documentation subject, offered him a new identity, and escorted him to Genoa, from where he fled to South America.

   It was not for less, because they felt a real dread at the possibility that it was out of the tongue. The last point was in a report sent by the counterintelligence service itself in 1950. It explains that “to claim, Barbie points out that he served the CIC faithfully against communism in recent years.” It was the best thing that would happen to the former Nazi officer, as the Americans had even considered ending their lives to avoid explaining what had happened in the country.

  And, those years the United States was more concerned with preventing the spread of communism (materialized in the coup d’etat of Fidel and Raúl Castro against Batista in Cuba back in 1952), than thinking of scruples. Based on this – and as specified in 2008, “Daily Express” journalist Paul Callan in his report “The Nazi Cocaine Connection” -, the Americans suffered a Barbie to traffic with “coca paste” and ” sell assault weapons. to ‘rightists’ »in some more Latin American countries could.

  The specialized historian in Latin America Paul Gootenberg is of the same opinion, as indicated in his book «Andean Cocaine. The process of a global drug ».

  For his part, the essayist James Cockcroft goes even further in the work “Latin America and the United States: country-by-country political history” and explains that Barbie’s connection with the government was even greater: “A former Vice Minister of Interior of Bolivia testified that Barbie had been Lieutenant Colonel of the Bolivian army, who helped establish concentration camps and was responsible for the imprisonment, torture and death of opponents of Bolivia’s military government in 1964-1982. Barbie also organized the sale of weapons in a circle of drug traffickers.

In 1984, Barbie was indicted for crimes committed as Gestapo chief in Lyon between 1942 and 1944. The jury trial started on 11 May 1987 in Lyon .

Barbie was convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment. He died in prison in Lyon four years later of leukemia and spine and prostate cancer at the age of 77.

Meanwhile in Germany :

After the war, the restoration of former officials to positions in the Foreign Ministry occurred at an astonishing rate. The political division alone soon counted 13 former Nazi Party members among its top officials, while 11 of the 17 senior members of the legal department were former Nazis. “There is no other federal ministry,” then SPD parliamentarian Fritz Erler concluded, “that is maintaining the continuity of Berlin tradition in this manner than the Foreign Ministry.”

The restoration of the old elites also had consequences for foreign policy, which veteran diplomats still deny to this day. Old Nazis were usually sent to posts in South America and Arab countries, where they shaped the image of the supposedly new republic. The diplomats repeatedly took steps to protect Nazis hiding abroad and accused war criminals from persecution.

In the 1950s, the German embassy in Buenos Aires unquestioningly issued travel documents to the family of Adolf Eichmann, one of the key organizers of the Holocaust, for a trip to Germany. No one bothered to draw any conclusions about Eichmann’s whereabouts.

As SPIEGEL revealed in 1968, the main legal protection office at the Foreign Ministry even developed into a “warning service” for old Nazis. With the help of the Red Cross, the diplomats informed about 800 Germans and Austrians that they should avoid traveling to France, because they had been convicted of war crimes there and could run into “difficulties.”

The case of the Finance Ministry, in particular, highlights the dangerous pragmatism adopted by West Germany’s founders in their personnel policies. Shortly after the new constitution had come into effect, Konrad Adenauer, postwar West Germany’s first chancellor and anything but a Nazi sympathizer, demanded an “end to this sniffing out of Nazis.

“You can’t build a Finance Ministry if you don’t have at least a few people in senior positions who understand something about earlier history,” Adenauer told the parliament, seeking to justify his support of staffing continuity.*

* Der Spiegel

Cephalonia Another forgotten German crime

31 Mar

The murders of the Germans in WWII are so varied and carried out on so many victims that it surprises. At the moment it is fashionable, induced by several German historians, to reflect that the allies also committed crimes in the WWII, to try to exculpate the German crimes.

  Of course the allies committed crimes, from the rapes of women by the African soldiers of the French army to robberies or also rapes by American and Russian soldiers, but trying to compare them with those committed by the Germans is like trying to compare an ant and an elephant.

  From the creation of destined fields to exterminate those who entered, the first time in the history of mankind that something similar has been done, to the meticulous planning of the extermination by fame of the occupied cities, not to mention the vans that gassed to which they went in them, extermination of cities and villages with all their inhabitants, etc, in contrast the Russians fed the Berliners the day after occupying Berlin.

  Currently in a European Union dominated by Germans, all important positions have a German holder or his second is German, mentioning German atrocities is not well seen.

  But it is curious that the more we investigate in the history of WWII, we find different victims. 

Cephalonia Island

   In the case that we are going to relate, it is about Italian soldiers. After the invasion of Sicily in July 1943 by the Allies, the Italian government signed the armistice with the allies on September 8, 1943, so that the Italians ceased to be officially allies of Hitler, although Mussolici supported by the Germans maintained in northern Italy a certain time.


Cephalonia Island

In the Cephalonia Island in Greece the 33rd Acqui Infantry Division resisted to the German attempt to disarm them after the armistice of Italy with the allies, operation Achse.

The General Antonio Gandin was the commander of the 33rd Acqui Infantry Division , and on 11 September, the Italian High Command sent two explicit instructions to Gandin, to the effect that “German troops have to be viewed as hostile” and that “disarmament attempts by German forces must be resisted with weapons”

Antonio Gandin

   The situation was confusing. Gardin did not want to fight with the Germans who had been his allies but he did not want to disobey the terms of the allied armistice.

  Some German ships were sunk when they approached to the island. 

  Gandin presented his troops with a poll, essentially containing the three options presented to him by Barge (Lt Colonel Johannes Barge arrived with 2,000 men of the 966th Fortress Grenadier Regiment, including Fortress-Battalions 810 and 909 and a battery of self-propelled guns and nine tanks.)

  1. Join the Germans
  2. Surrender and be repatriated
  3. Resist the German forces

The response from the Italian troops was in favour of the third option by a large majority.

Despite help for the Italians from the local population, including the island’s small ELAS partisan detachments the Italians were defeated.

At the end of the battle the Italians had 1200 dead and the Germans 300, although at the beginning of the battle the Italians took 400 German prisoners, the Italian soldiers were conscripted against the German professionals, something similar to the Malvinas war decades later.

 The massacre started on 21 September, and lasted for one week. After the Italian surrender, Hitler had issued an order allowing the Germans to summarily execute any Italian officer who resisted “for treason”, and on 18 September, the German High Command issued an order stating that “because of the perfidious and treacherous behaviour [of the Italians] on Cephalonia, no prisoners are to be taken.”[The Gebirgsjäger soldiers began executing their Italian prisoners in groups of four to ten.The Germans first killed the surrendering Italians, where they stood, using machine-guns. When a group of Bavarian soldiers objected to this practice they were threatened with summary execution themselves. After this stage was over, the Germans marched the remaining soldiers to the San Teodoro town hall and had the prisoners executed by eight member detachments. General Gandin and 137 of his senior officers were summarily court-martialled on 24 September and executed, their bodies discarded at sea.

Alfred Richter, an Austrian, and one of the participants in the massacre recounted how a soldier who sang arias for the Germans in the local taverns was forced to sing while his comrades were being executed. The singing soldier’s fate remains unknown.Richter stated that he and his regiment comrades felt “a delirium of omnipotence” during the events. Most of the soldiers of the German regiment were Austrians. This event reminds me of the events of the holocaust by bullets in Poland and the USSR, when the Germans forced a young Jewish girl to dance naked on a table while they were machine gunning her people and with her parents.

Harald Von Hirschfeld

“When people saw how cold-bloodedly the Germans slaughtered Italian soldiers, they were horrified,” Perrotta explains. Enemies became allies as Greeks hid Italians to save them from death. Even today, the relationship between Greece and Italy is much less complicated than the relationship between Greece and Germany. 

In the 1950s, the remains of about 3,000 soldiers, including 189 officers, were exhumed and transported back to Italy for burial in the Italian War Cemetery in Bari. The remains of General Gandin were never identified.

German translator Doris Wille has lived in Kefalonia for almost 30 years. For many years, the massacre has accompanied her in her work and in her contact with people, though she learned about it by chance: “I had been living here for a few years before I heard about the massacre for the first time by chance at the end of the 1990s. I translated a travel guide about the island and saw that the Italian version contained a chapter about the massacre that was simply missing in the German version. When I asked the (Greek) author about it, she said that you couldn’t expect German tourists to be able to deal with it. That’s why she left it out.”

Wille believes, one thing is neglected when focusing on the massacre: “What is often forgotten about when it comes to the horrific magnitude of this war crime is that there was also a lot of suffering among the Greek population. In the12 months of German occupation that followed the massacre, villages were torched and people executed.” In recent years, there has been an increase in publications on the subject, Wille emphasizes. But Germany still has a lot of catching up to do in terms of understanding the years of occupation in Greece.

Hubert Lanz

As usual the killers were not punished or they were punished very lightly. Only Hirschfeld’s superior commander, General Hubert Lanz, was sentenced to 12 years imprisonment at the so-called “Southeast Case” of the Nuremberg Trials for the Cephalonia massacre, as well as the participation of his men in other atrocities in Greece like the massacre of Kommeno on 16 August 1943.He was released in 1951 and died in 1982. Lt Colonel Barge was not on the island when the massacre was taking place. He was subsequently decorated with the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross for his service in Crete. He died in 2000

What makes the Germans so lethal to other people? As an Englishman said, it will be a long time before they are allowed to enter the club of civilized countries again, but everything is forgotten and they dominate, economically, Europe again.

The Germans are vampires of children … literally

21 Jul

The atrocities committed by the Germans are so many and so cruel that it is hard to believe them. The Germans hid them for decades in the postwar period, aided by the Americans and the English since the Nazis and the Philonazis who ruled in post-war Germany were their allies against Russia in the cold war.

Even now many of the atrocities are still hidden, most of the population knows the concentration camps and the gas chambers, but little or nothing of the mobile gas chambers, the burning of entire villages with all their inhabitants, of burying alive to the prisoners or to extract the blood of the Russian children until they died to provide it to the wounded Germans.

Yes. This seems horror movie happened, and not by a sadistic individual like Mengele but in a systematic and widespread form.

 Resultado de imagen
Svletana Alexievich

In her splendid book, Svetlana Alexievich, Nobel Prize for literature, collects the stories of Russian children during the war. Shudder read it.

 Location of  Belarus  (green)in Europe  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]

Belarus has been one of the republics of the Soviet Union that suffered most during WWII, lost one in every four inhabitants and the Germans created true demographic deserts in her.

The Germans murdered civilians in 5,295 different localities in occupied Soviet Belarus. and the population of Belarus did not regain its pre-war level until 1971.Germany destroyed 209 out of 290 cities in the republic, 85% of the republic’s industry, and more than one million buildings.

In Svetlana Alexievich´s book a child of only four years , Sasha Suetin relates:

  I only remember my mother …

First picture …

My mother always wore a white coat … My fatherhe was official, my mother worked in the hospital. That’s what my older brother counted later. I just remember my mom’s white coat. I do not even remember his face,only the white coat … And also his white cap; She left italways on top of a small table, upright,never on the side; It was starched.

Second image …

Mom has not come home … I had become used tothat my father was out often, but Mom always coming home. My brother and I are left alone in home several days, we would not go out: “What if mom comes back?” . Someone knocked on the door. They are strangers, they dress us and they take us somewhere. I cry.

-Mom! Where is my mom?

-Don’t cry, mom will find us. -My brother reassures He’s three years older than me.

We were in a house, or in a long barrack, sitting in platforms to sleep. Hunger is constant, I suckthe buttons on the shirt, look like candy Dad brings me from his trips. I wait for mom.

Third image …

A man puts me and my brother in a corner of the platform. He covers us with a blanket, he throws some rags above. I cry and he caresses my hair.

I calm down

Every day it repeats itself. One of the times I’m bored of waiting so long under the blanket and

begin to cry for low, then cry loudly. Someone appears,take the rags and pull the blanket. I open my eyes: in front of me there is a woman wrapped in a white coat.

-Mom! – I crawl towards her.

She caresses me. First the hair …, then the hand … Then take something out of a small metal box.I do not notice anything, I only see the white coat and the hat white.

Suddenly, a sharp pain in the hand! I have one needle stuck in the skin. I scream and I faint. I recover, next to me sits the man who has been hiding us On the other side, my brother is lying down.

-Don’t be afraid -the man tells me- o He is not dead, he is asleep.

– It was not mom?

-Do not …

-She had a white coat, like mom … I repit again and again, and another.

-I made a toy. -The man passes me a Little ball of rag.

I take the toy and I stop crying.

I do not remember anything of what happened next: who and how did they save us from the German concentration camp? There the children drew blood for the German soldiers wounded. The children died. How did my brother and me arrived to the orphanage? How, at the end of the war, we received the warning of the death of our parents? Something happened to me in the memory. I do not remember faces, I do not remember words …

The war finished. I started the first course. Other children they would read a poem two or three times and they would able to remember it. With ten times I was not able to learn it from memory,  but for some reason the teachers did not put me never bad notes. To others yes, to me no.

This is all my history.

It´s difficult don´t cry after read this……

A testimony of Valia Matushkova, five years :


Valia Mátiushkova, five years

She is currently an engineer

I’ll surprise her! I would like to remember something funny. Cheerful. I like to laugh, I do not want to cry. Oh, oh, oh … It’s already, I’m crying again …

My father takes me to motherhood and tells me that ee will buy a child. I want to know what my little brother. I ask my father: «and how is it?». Heanswered : “He’s a very small kid.”

Suddenly, my father and I are in a very high place , the smoke comes through the window. Dad carries me in his arms;I ask that we return, that I have left my beautiful small bag. I get angry and I cry. Dad is quiet and he narrows me down to  him, he tightens me so hard that I can not breathe. Soon my father disappears, I walk down the Street with a woman. We pass in front of a fence, after it are the prisoners of war. It’s hot, they ask us give them water. I have two candies in my pocket. I throw them above the wire fence. But how come I have those  twins sweets ? I do not remember. Some throw bread … Cucumbers … The guard shoots and we run …

It’s amazing, but I remember all that … With detail …

I remember in the juvenile center, which was close to with a wire. They were guarding us German soldiers and dogs; they were German shepherds. Among the children there was some who could not even walk, crawled. When they were hungry, they licked the soil … They ate the dirt …These were dying soon. The food was very bad; of the bread that they gave us our tongue swelled, so much that I could not speak. We do not even talk We only thought about eating. You had just have breakfast and you were already asking: “What will there be for the lunch? ». You had lunch and thought: “What will there be for dinner?”

We went under the wire and escaped to the city. Our only objective was to go and look for garbage  Hit with a herring skin or with a few potatoes was an event. We eat them raws.

I remember that once, in the dumpster, I was caught by a man. I panicked.

– Sir, I will not do it again.

He wonder:

-Where is your family?

-I do not have. I’m from the juvenile center.

He took me to his house and gave me food. In his house there  was only potatoes to eat. They boiled potatoes and I ate a whole casserole.

From the children’s center they moved us to an orphanage; the orphanage was in front of the building of the High School of Medicine, there the German hospital was installed. I remember the low windows, the heavy shutters that they closed at night.

There they fed us very well, I gained weight. A woman that cleaned it there, it took me a lot of love. I felt sorry for all the children, but above all for me. When they were coming to take blood, we all tried to hide:

“The doctors are coming …” She hid me in some corner. And he kept repeating that I looked like his daughter. The other children got under the beds and from there they were taken out with some bait: one day was a piece of bread, another day a toy. A little red ball was engraved on me …

“The doctors” left and I went back to the room… I remember a little boy lying on a bed, his arm hung out of the bed, dripping blood.

The other children cried … Every two or three weeks different children. Some were taken away, very weak and pales, and brought the new ones. These were fed very well.

German doctors believed that children’s blood less than five years old, did that the German wounded recovered better. They believed that it possessed rejuvenating properties.

I found out later, of course, much later …

But then I was dying to have a pretty toy.That red ball.

When the Germans left Minsk … in retreat…that woman who helped me took us outside: “If you  ihave someone family, look for them. If you do not have parents, go to any village: the people will save you ».

I did what he told us. I went to live at the house of a old woman … I do not remember hher name, or what village she was. Remember that they arrested their daughter and we were both alone: an old woman and a girl. To endure a whole week we only had a piece of bread.

I was the last to know that the village had been liberated. I was sick. When I found out, I got up and I went to school. I was hooked on the first soldier I saw. I remember that his military shirt was completely wet.

Of so many hugs, tears and kisses.        

It´s amazing that this is a organizated chain of killers of children, doctors, nurses, soldiers and no one was punished !

Other testimony :

It is the Estate Of Winczent-Pokrewski. The enormous halls of architectural monument during the war were hospital chambers for the injured German soldiers and the officers.

– Here was a German garrison… And in this building all rooms, and here them there were about 33, they were filled by the injured. And these injured needed the fresh donor blood, tells the scientific worker of memorial “Belorussian children – the victims of fascism” Ludmila MELASHCHENKO. In the same building – the occupiers held about 2000 children. Predominantly girls from 8 to 14 years. the 1st group of the blood and positive Rh factor were most frequently encountered precisely in them. Benevolent aunts in the white dressing gowns regularly came and took away children by groups. They placed to the tables under the inclination and pushed through slender knobs into the openings in the wall. They took away the blood completely, and bodies were bur

And another :

If you look in the pantry, I saw a pile of bodies piled in the kids’

70 years ago in the occupied Makeyevka Samokhina Galina and her brother became prisoners of the shelter in which the Nazis used children as donors for the wounded German soldiers

In Makeevka Donetsk region there is the world’s only monument to the donor children, who during the Great Patriotic War took blood for the injured occupants. Monument to murdered juvenile donors have set in place of their alleged dumping: in 1943, when Soviet troops liberated the Makeyevka, in the neighborhood Sotsgorodok of six shallow pits removed 300 children’s bodies. According to the pathologists, were part of a commission to investigate Nazi crimes, these children have died from infectious diseases, and extreme exhaustion. “The complete absence of subcutaneous fat,” – noted in an act of commission. They were mostly children from the Nazis set up a shelter, “Charity” in the dungeons of which have visited about 600 boys and girls aged from six months to 14 years.

– They fed us badly: overthrow the cart in the yard of rotten beets or corn on the cob dry, from which as much teeth chattered, and we are eagerly snapped up by all this so as not to starve to death, – says Galina. – Day of the mass poisoning, I remember very well. The street was unbearable heat. In the shelter brought the barrel with the blood of slaughtered animals, which swam green flies. This goo baked and gave us breakfast. By 11 o’clock in the morning all were poisoned. Many people, especially young children, died. I have the same dark eyes, I went outside and lay down on the bench, which stood at the entrance. The nurse grabbed me by the hair and dragged him off somewhere. “Easy to wash!” – She cried. All surviving children have a gastric lavage.

Prisoners kill shelter in no hurry: they were needed as donors for the wounded German soldiers.

– Nanny came to me and said, “You have to take a blood test,” relegated to a room where I took the blood – says my companion. – But once I tried to escape. Because after these reviews I was very ill for several days dizzy.

Gale could not escape. Nurse grabbed her arm and pulled her into the room where the medical office. While the guard dragged her down the hallway, the girl saw in the room carried the lifeless body of a boy.

The only monument to the children :

The world’s only memorial complex of the donor children, victims of Nazism, is in Makeyevka Donetsk region, Ukraine. On the stele of black granite inscribed only the names of 120 victims of Nazism.

After all this, do you consider that Germans are like other nations? I do not believe it.

Vampires of the Wehrmacht

Darkest attrocities

More War Criminals without punishment, or almost

21 Jul

Germany has a complicated and dark twentieth century. Just remember the dismal III Reich. The northern Land of Schleswig-Holstein, is one of those regions where it must hurt to remember. Because, in its day, this region that borders Denmark was one of the German areas where the Nazis achieved more success on their way to power. And, above all, because after the Second World War, the reinsertion of members of the German National Socialist Workers Party (NSDAP, according to its German acronym) was commonplace.
Notables of the totalitarian regime of Adolf Hitler also tried to enjoy there, with more or less success, a second chance. “Schleswig-Holstein sadly has that fame. In the 60s and 70s it was known that there were many cases here of authentic hidden war criminals, who lived undisturbed for a decade or more, “says Karen Bruhn, historian at the Christian Albrecht University in Kiel. “In the 60s it was investigated, but the investigations focused on the most relevant people, and many people with a past in the Nazi party could be integrated into the new democratic state,” Bruhn writes.
Names like Werner Catel, known to practice euthanasia to children in times of Nazism, is one of those relevant figures. “Catel is a well-known example, he lived until his death in Kiel and was a professor at the University of Kiel after the war,” recalls Bruhn. Kiel is the capital of Schleswig-Holstein. Eighty kilometers south of that city lies Lübeck, where Ernst Lautz, who was the Attorney General of the Third Reich, would live until his last days. This man was sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment in Nuremberg. He ended up being released early in 1951, which took the opportunity to settle in Lübeck until his death in 1977.

A doctor who practiced euthanasia on children
In the case of Catel, in 1960 his role in the euthanasia system began to be made public to children with mental illnesses in the National Socialist regime. His retirement, in line with the controversy generated, seemed to be a product of circumstances. It has been estimated that some 5,000 people were victims of the euthanasia system that Catel participated in. After his retirement in Kiel, Catel remained intellectually active, writing several books, mainly on his medical specialty, pediatrics.


 Wernel Catel 2
Werner Catel before

One case among thousands :

In early 1939 a farm labourer called Richard Kretschmar requested Catel’s permission to euthanise one of his children, now identified as Gerhard Kretschmar, who had been born blind and deformed. Catel deferred the matter and suggested the father write directly to Hitler  for permission. Hitler subsequently sent Dr.Karl Brandt to confer with Catel and decide on a course of action. On July 25, 1939 the child was killed.

 Werner Catel
Werner Catel after

After the war Catel took charge of the Mammolshöhe Children’s Mental Home near Kronberg , where he continued to rally for the euthanasia of children deemed beyond hope. In 1949 he was found to have committed no grave crimes by a denazification  board in Hamburg , and became attached to the University of Kiel in 1954. There was serious discussion after his death in 1981 of establishing a Werner Catel Foundation with $200,000 from his estate, but the idea was finally dismissed in 1984.
A lawyer of the Nazi state

Ernst Lautz, the Nazi state lawyer sentenced to ten years in prison in Nuremberg, for his part,

Ernst Lautz

participated in the execution of laws against Poles and Jews in the territories annexed by the Third Reich in Eastern Europe. That cost him a conviction for war crimes. But that punishment was abbreviated as was also reduced the life sentence imposed on Franz Lautz was released on parole on Jan. 31, 1951, after serving a little more than three years.

In 1936 he became Attorney General in Berlin and moved in 1937 to Karlsruhe. Lautz, who joined the NSDAP in May 1933, became a prosecutor at the People’s Court from 1 July 1939. He attended the meeting of the highest jurists of the Reich on 23 and 24 April 1941 in Berlin, in which Viktor Brack and Werner Heyde informed about the “destruction of life unworthy of life” in the gas chambers of the T4 campaign. He was in the trial against participants of the assassination of 20 July 1944 representative of the indictment. On January 30, 1945, he and Roland Freisler appealed to the German justice system to affirm allegiance to the “Führer”.

Lautz lived after his release until his death in Lübeck. The pension office in Kiel  had its pension claims since December 1, 1952 (1951 and 1952 was entitled to his position and salary as chief prosecutor) of a high-level lawyer on the 1936 under the National Socialists promotion to Attorney General at the Berlin Court of Appeal “shortened”. The political scandal in the Federal Republic revealed by the Stuttgarter Nachrichten in December 1956 (after five years) led after another five years of disciplinary juridical battles (it was also about, with which title one was allowed to address him: “Reichsanwalt aD”) finally to a ” Gnadenpension “of 600 DM. An attempt was not made by Eugen Gerstenmaier, because the treaty for the settlement of war and occupation issues of May 26, 1952 forbade a repeated condemnation by German courts.

 Lautz 2
Ernst Launtz

Can you get an idea of the thousands killed by this man with that seems a innocent-looking jurist when he is in prison?

Schlegelberger Reich Minister of Justice

Schlegelberger, who was Minister of Justice of the Third Reich between 1941 and 1942.

Schlegelberger  was firmly condemned in Nuremberg to life imprisonment. His participation in war crimes and against humanity was proven there.

Schlegelberger became provisional Reich Minister of Justice for the years 1941 and 1942, followed then by Otto Thierack. During his time in office the number of death sentences rose sharply. He authored the bills such as the so-called Poland Penal Law Provision (Polenstrafrechtsverordnung) under which Poles were executed for tearing down German posters. Schlegelberger’s attitude towards his job may be best encapsulated in a letter to Reich Minister and Chief of the Reich Chancellery Hans Heinrich Lammers:

Dear Reich Minister Dr. Lammers,


Upon the Führer-order of 24 October 1941 forwarded to me through Mr. State Minister and Chief of the Führer’s and Reich Chancellor’s Presidial Chancellery, I have handed the Jew Markus Luftglass, sentenced to 2½ years in prison by the Special Court in Katowice, over to the Gestapo for execution.

Heil Hitler!
most obedient

— Schlegelberger

However, for medical reasons, he was released in 1950. He lived two decades in Flensburg until his death on December 14, 1970. Flensburg, practically on the German-Danish border .For years afterward, he drew a monthly pension of DM 2,894 (for comparison, the average monthly income in Germany at that time was DM 535)

The widow of a Jewish Holocaust architect
Another personality infamous for his connection to the original Nazism of Schleswig-Holstein is Lina Heydrich. This woman died in her hometown, Fehmarn (east of Schleswig-Holstein), in 1985. Lina took much of her life the name of her first husband, Reinhard Heydrich. This high office of the III Reich is considered one of the architects of the Holocaust. Because of its implacable and cold character, Adolf Hitler called him in his day “the man with the heart of steel”.

 Mujer de Heydrich
Heydrich and wife

Heydrich died in 1942 after being injured in the so-called Operation Anthropoid. This was an attack carried out by Czech and Slovak agents that would end up costing the life to which he was responsible for the Central Office of Security of the Reich and Nazi leader in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia -now the Czech Republic-. His wife, Lina, showed that she never forgot it. She dedicated his memoirs, published in 1976. They were entitled Leben mit einem Kriegsverbrechen (Ed. Ludwig Verlag, 1976) or “Life with a war criminal”.

 Los Heidrich
Heydrich & wife

Cases like those of Heydrich, Schlegelberger, Lautz or Catel may be the most notorious. But there were a huge number of people with a Nazi past who re-established their lives in Schleswig-Holstein. In post-World War II Germany, denazification did not come immediately after Hitler’s suicide or with the German capitulation of May 7, 1945. In the case of Schleswig-Holstein, the fact arises that, before conflict, it was already one of the regions that most support the Nazi party had experienced.
“In the general elections of July 1932, the increase of the votes to the Nazi party reached a record of 51% when in the rest of the country the increase was of 37.7%”, according to the accounts of the historian Anthony McEllignott, of the University of Limerick (Ireland). Those who, like him, have studied the Schleswig-Holstein case, note that in no other region of Germany did the Nazi party’s support grow in its phase of political ascent.
The most Nazi region in the 30s
Hence Schleswig-Holstein he calls “the brown province”. The brown, in the chromatic code with which the German political parties are identified, is the color attributed to the NSDAP. Currently, the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) of Chancellor Angela Merkel is the black and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) is the red. After the Second World War, the brown influence in German politics could be considered to have disappeared. But the Nazis were still there. In the regional parliament of Schleswig-Holstein, without going any further.


In Schleswig-Holstein, from the elections to the regional Parliament of 1958, it is known that 50% of the members of the chamber were former members of the Nazi party,” explains Bruhn, the history specialist for the northern German Land. “But these members did not have antidemocratic behavior, the old elites of the regime worked here, yes, but integrated into the new country,” says this historian, alluding to West Germanyparison, the average monthly income in Germany at that time was DM 535).

In Spanish

West Berlin Won’t Prosecute Members of Nazi People’s Court

Judges´s trial

Conclusions of Military Tribunal

The Euthanasian killings