A German death camp in Italy ? Yes in Trieste.

6 Mar

Where they were the Germans was death.

In a rice factory next to a football field, the Germans established one of their favorite industries, extermination.

Mapa

In Risiera San Sabba, within its walls died between 4,000 and 5,000 people between 1943 and 1945. Some died asphyxiated by gas exhaust of the vans SS, others shot in the neck and many others strangled or shot. There is evidence that the crematory swallowed many are still alive. Neither the roar of the engines, or dog´s barking or music prevented that from outside the cries of the prisoners would listen.

Risiera de San Sabba

The horror began in September 1943 when the Nazis occupied Trieste Risiera transformed into a prison camp. Only a month later, and used this resort as a transit point for those deported to Germany and deposit forfeited assets to the Hebrews. A few more months and Risiera San Sabba had become the only death camp in Italy. In April 1944, they tested the new crematorium and the chimney was previously used for rice with the bodies of 70 executed in Opicina. It worked perfectly. They boarded up the windows, walled entire complex and even decorated a neighboring building as a residence of the commander of lager.

Children´s killers

Children´s killers

Despedida

Farewell to one of one of the shot

Traduction : Dear Mam : I write you for said that today will be shot. Goodway for ever. Dear Mam goodway. Dear sister goodway. Dear Father goodway.

Transit camp for Jews and military intended to extermination camps in Poland and Germany, Risiera also worked as a site for  mass extermination and individuals.

According to the reconstruction of the historians, the inmates of the Rice Mill, between October 1943 and April 1945, awaiting transfer were 20,000, and among them there were 1,300 Jews in the region. Of the 700 racial deportees ofTrieste, only about twenty returned. It is also estimated that people are eliminated in place between 4000 and 5000, not yet identified all. The crematorium and its chimney were destroyed by the Germans on the run in the night between 29 and 30 April 1945. Among the debris were found human bones and ashes, collected in three paper bags than those used for the cement that evidently had been prepared for the customary transport to the sea, where they were dispersed. Among the interned Jews there were entire families with children. In addition, a large group of young teenagers, for forced labor, was transferred from the Rice Mill Karst in December 1944. As for Pino Robusti ( an inmate ) , the mother after the liberation could recognize the jacket of his son, killed and cremated April 7, 1945.

Niños

http://www.raistoria.rai.it/articoli/lorrore-alla-risiera-di-san-sabba/12620/default.aspx

The extermination camp was in operation until April 1945 when the Nazis fled and decided to blow up the crematorium to leave no traces of their crimes. Too late. Among the rubble sacks and sacks of bones and human ashes were filled.

http://www.ilpaesedeibambinichesorridono.it/pino.htm

http://www.risierasansabba.it/la-storia/

http://www.testimonianzedailager.rai.it/approfondimenti/sab_info.asp

Nobody ever paid for this tragedy. The case was closed in April 1976 after three years of trials. Goblocnik, head of the SS during the Nazi occupation of Trieste, committed suicide with cyanide before being captured by a British patrol in 1945. Joseph Oberhauser, the first commander of the Risiera, continued to serve beer in Monaco until 1979 when he died and August Dietrich Allers , his immediate superior, died during the trial in 1975. The Italian justice never demanded the extradition of Oberhauser because the italo-German agreements governing these facts are valid only for crimes committed after 1948 (¡!)

As usual with the German mass killers , they were not punished or their punishments were similar to a chicken thief penalties.

 Josef Obersahuer
Killer Josef Oberhauser

First he killed mentally ills :

At the end of the Invasion of Poland, he was no longer with the SS-Totenkopfverbände “Brandenburg” section, but was assigned to Reichsarbeitsgemeinschaft für Heil- und Pflegeanstalten, part of the office for Action T4 and one of several front organizations of Hitler’s Chancellery, in November 1939. This organization was responsible for the killing of approximately 100,000 mentally ill and disabled people during Action T4. At the killing centers of GrafeneckBrandenburg and Bernburg, where these people were murdered en masse by gas (carbon monoxide poisoning), Oberhauser was a Brenner (burner), or Leichenbrenner (corpse burner): he was responsible for the burning of the bodies in the specially installed crematory ovens.

Oberhauser also “worked” in the exterminion  Belsen camp .

– Belzec Trial – Sentence: LG Munich I dated 21 January 1965, 110 Ks 3/64. IV. The duties of the defendant in Belzec and Lublin.[4]

The defendant, Oberhauser, – then an SS-Oberscharführer – was on the staff of the senior SS and Police Leader in Lublin from November to Christmas 1941. Subsequently, he was assigned to work for the camp commandant of Belzec (Christian Wirth), which saw him appointed as liaison officer to the staff of the senior SS and Police Leader and moreover, unlike other non-commissioned officers, given no fixed area of responsibility within the camp; on the contrary, he was free to do as he personally saw fit. …

…Oberhauser given a role at the implementation of mass killings, the illegality of which he had fully recognized. For example, on the orders of the camp commandant, Wirth, he met trainloads arriving at Belzec, each comprising at least 150 people, at the camp gates on at least five occasions in the period from mid-March to 1st August 1942. He led the supervision of the unloading of the trains and made sure that the train crew did not enter the camp area but were held outside the camp in readiness, to be able to reinforce the outer cordon in case there was an uprising or desperate breakout attempt by the doomed people. All the Jews who arrived on these trains were killed in the manner already described.

When, in spring 1942, a major expansion of Belzec Camp was carried out to increase its capacity for extermination, it was the task of the defendant, to procure the necessary building materials, in particular, for the construction of the larger gas chamber facility. He was allocated vehicles and the people necessary for the fulfillment of this task. In exercising his duties, he was aware of the fact that the work carried out with his assistance, was intended to create the conditions for a significant increase in the numbers of those exterminated. On 1 August 1942, as inspector of the three extermination camps of Belzec, Treblinka and Sobibor, Wirth moved to his new office in Lublin, and succeeded in getting Oberhauser, whom he assessed as a dutiful subordinate, also transferred there. There, the defendant was given the command of the Ukrainian guards employed by the staff of the senior SS and Police Leader, Globocnik, to guard important sites in Lublin. In addition, he was still available to Wirth, and had to act as an escort on his inspection visits to the extermination camps.

After his release, Oberhauser was employed as a sawmill worker in Bevensen. On 13 April 1948, he was arrested during a stay in the Soviet occupation zone. On 24 September 1948, he was convicted by the Soviet Military Administration in Germany of violating “Control Council Law No. 10” of 20 December 1945 (which also served as a basis at the Nuremberg Trials), by his membership in a criminal organization (the SS) and his killing of victims in Grafeneck, Brandenburg and Bernburg. Oberhauser was sentenced to 15 years in prison and 10 years deprivation of civil rights. He was granted an amnesty on 28 April 1956, and released after only 8 years. Following his release, Josef Oberhauser served as a casual labourer, bartender and waiter in Munich.

In 1963 the Bełżec trial began and Oberhauser was one of 8 defendants charged with war crimes committed at the extermination camp. On 30 January 1964, all of the defendants but Oberhauser were acquitted due to the collapse of the prosecution case but re-arrested shortly thereafter. Oberhauser appeared before the court again in January 1965. He was found guilty of a number of charges, namely:

  • Accessoryto 300,000 cases (charged with 450,000) of collective murder
  • Five other crimes of aiding and abetting collective murder in each of 150 cases

Oberhauser was sentenced to 4 years and 6 months imprisonment. He was released after serving half of his sentence. Oberhauser was sentenced to life imprisonment in absentia for his crimes committed in Italy, but the Italian extradition request failed. Josef Oberhauser died on 20 November 1979 in Munich.

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